The Endosymbiotic Theory

Some of the earliest life forms on earth were called Prokaryotic cells, which first appear around 4 billion years ago. Eukaryotic cells appeared around 1.8 billion years ago, which many scientists think all eukaryotic cells came from a prokaryote cells.

Eukaryotic cells are powered by organelles, which are like little batteries. All eukaryotes have an organelle called mitochondrion, which makes the energy to power cells. In plant cells, the organelle is called a plastid. Plastids can use sunlight to make energy, like a solar battery.

Scientists found that both mitochondria and plastids inside plant cells had their own DNA that was different from the rest of the plant cell DNA. A closer look at the genes in the mitochondria and plastid DNA, they found that the genes were more like those from prokaryotes which suggests that organelles are more closely related to prokaryotes.

Lynn Margulis published an article called “On the Origin of Mitosing Cells” in Journal of Theoretical Biology in 1967. Margulis proposes that three organelles, mitochondria, plastids, and basal bodies, were once free-living cells that took residence inside primitive eukaryotic cells, which she called endosymbiosis – in other words the energy-producing mitochondria, and the photosynthesizing plastids of algae and plants, resulted from a symbiotic relationship between different types of free-living cells.

The Endosymbiotic Theory suggests that red blood cells evolved from plants cells through a symbiotic relationship and is important to human health because it explains how aerobic bacteria gave anaerobic cells the ability to perform oxidative metabolism, and photosynthetic bacteria gave cells the ability to perform photosynthesis.

Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates said, “death sits in the bowels” and “bad digestion is the root of all evil,” The significance of The Endosymbiotic Theory is how humans evolved with the plant which biosynthesize three of the nine essential amino acids that are not produced in the human body. Humans have evolved to therefore to depend on plants.

Humans started to domesticated plants and animals for agriculture over twelve thousand years ago in what is now Turkey and the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia. What is less well-known is that plants and the chemicals they produce for defense have also had a significant effect on human biology and evolution.

Nature Got It Right

Wellness Academy USA – San Diego